Ghana is a multilingual country, with around 80 different languages spoken. The official language of Ghana is English, which was inherited from the colonial era. Akan is the most extensively spoken among Ghana’s indigenous languages, particularly in the south. The most widely spoken language in Northern Ghana is Dagbanli.
Ghana includes eight ethnic groups and around seventy tribal groups, each with its own language. Languages from the same ethnic group are frequently understood by one another.
The Northern Region’s Dagbanli and Mampelle languages, for example, are mutually intelligible with Ghana’s Upper West Region’s Frafra and Waali languages. Mole-Dagbani ethnicity is represented by these four languages.
Three Akan ethnic languages (Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, and Fante) and two Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages hold the status of government-sponsored languages (Dagaare and Dagbanli). Ewe, Dangme, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, and Kasem are the others.
Due to Ghana’s proximity to Francophone countries, French is set to become one of the country’s official languages anytime soon. (Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, and Togo are Ghana’s neighboring countries).
Ethnic Groups In Ghana And Their Languages
Below is the list of ethnic groups in Ghana and their languages
Akan, part of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family, is a dialect continuum, but, with regard to official status, only three out of the many varieties of Akan are recognised: Fante, Asante Twi, and Akuapem Twi. Taken as a whole, Akan is the most-widely spoken language in Ghana.
Akposo or Kposo language, or Ikposo (Ikpɔsɔ), is the language of the Akposso people, mainly in the Plateau Region of Togo, west of Atakpamé, but also mainly in eastern Ghana. It is considered one of the Ghana–Togo Mountain languages, It is the indigenous language of people of Akposokubi, Akposo Kabo and Akposo Oklabe.
Ewe is a Gbe language, part of the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo family. The Ewe language is spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin with a trace of the language in West Nigeria. Out of the many dialects of Ewe spoken in Ghana, the major ones are Anlo, Tongu, Vedome, Gbi, and Krepi
Dagbani is one of the Gur languages. It belongs to the larger Mole-Dagbani ethnic group found in Ghana and Burkina Faso. It is spoken by Dagombas in the Northern Region of Ghana.
Dangme is one of the Ga–Dangme languages within the Kwa branch. It is spoken in Greater Accra, in south-east Ghana and Togo.
Dagaare is another of the Gur languages. It is spoken in the Upper West Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in Burkina Faso.
Ga is the other Ga–Dangme language within the Kwa branch. Ga is spoken in south-eastern Ghana, in and around the capital Accra.
GA-ADANGME-KROBO Spoken by the Krobo people who are an ethnic group in Ghana. They are grouped as part of Ga-Adangbe ethnolinguistic group and they are also the largest group of the seven Dangme ethnic groups of Southeastern Ghana.
Nzema is one of the Bia languages, closely related to Akan. It is spoken by the Nzema people in the Western Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in the Ivory Coast.
Kasem is a Gurunsi language, in the Gur branch. It is spoken in the Upper Eastern Region of Ghana. It is also spoken in Burkina Faso.
Gonja is one of the Guang languages, part of the Tano languages within the Kwa branch along with Akan and Bia. It is spoken in the Northern Region of Ghana and Wa
Anii or Basila
Basila is one of the Guang languages, part of the GTM languages within the kwa branch along with Akan and Bia. It is spoken in the Oti region of Ghana. Also, spoken in Togo-Benin borders.
This article highlighted all you needed to know about various ethnic groups in Ghana and their languages.
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